Nico Blüthgen

Since Sept 2011  Professor for Ecology at
TU Darmstadt


2003 - 2011  Research assistant at U Würzburg (Animal Ecology & Tropical Biology)


2003  PhD thesis at U Bayreuth: Nutritional ecology of ant communties in Australian rainforest


1999  Diploma thesis at U Bonn: Ants and plants in the Amazonian rainforest


Studied Biology at U Marburg, U Würzburg, U Bonn and at Duke University


Subject Editor for Biotropica, Basic & Appl Ecol

Reviewer for ... 75 journals so far.


 Research interests            


I am interested in the ECOLOGY OF INSECTS


Research domains: community ecology, species interactions, network analysis, entomology, insect-plant interactions, tropical rainforests, ants, pollinators, herbivores, dung-beetles, stoichiometry, nutritional ecology, stable isotopes, thermal biology, land-use effects, climate change.


We have developed conceptual tools for network analyses.


​bluethgen @

B1|01, Room 262 

Prof. Dr. Nico Blüthgen

Fachbereich Biologie

Technische Universität Darmstadt

Schnittspahnstr. 3

64287 Darmstadt, Germany

​Phone +49 6151 16-75411

 Highlighted publications                                           

Nov 2019

Insect decline is real and driven by agricultural surroundings
Across 300 study plots of the Biodiversity Exploratories, we detected a surprisingly strong decline of insect biomass, abundance and diversity over 8 years. The decline was evident in forests but much stronger in grasslands where the area of arable field in the surrounding had a strong impact.

Jan 2017

Restoring plant-pollinator networks in a fragile island ecosystem
Invasive plants can strongly change island ecosystems and disrupt native plant - pollinator mutualisms. This study shows how restoration of a mountaintop ecosystem can be successful: after removing the invadors, pollinator networks became more complex and pollination increased.

Feb 2016

Asynchrony begets stability
Diversity stabilizes communities via the 'portfolio effect', but particularly via asynchrony of species (insurance hypothesis). We show how land use in forests and grasslands affects this stablity, summarizing the long term data of 2600 animal and plant species.

Aug 2015

Diversity in thermal responses: pollinators for hot and cold days
Thermal niches are described for hundreds of pollinator species. Many of them occur together in grasslands - a strong case how biodiversity stabilizes ecosystems via complementarity in environmental responses.

Aug 2015

Can physiological tolerance constrain the ants' geographic distribution?  


We show how variation in climatic responses in laboratory experiments

across several Mediterranean ant species can predict where they occur or not on the map of Iberia.

 Main projects              



Biodiversity Exploratories






[156]    Thiel T, Gaschler S, Mody K, Blüthgen N, Drossel B (2020) Impact of plant defense level variability on specialist and generalist herbivores. Theoretical Ecology in press

[155]    Ambarlı D, Simons NK, Wehner K, Kämper W, Gossner MM, Nauss T, F. Neff F, Seibold S, Weisser WW, Blüthgen N (2020): Animal-mediated ecosystem process rates in forests and grasslands are affected by climatic conditions and land-use intensity. Ecosystems in press

[154]    Mody K, Lerch D, Müller AK, Simons NK, Blüthgen N, Harnisch M (2020) Flower power in the city: Replacing roadside shrubs by wildflower meadows increases insect numbers and reduces maintenance costs. PLoS One 15: e0234327

[153]  Schwarz B, Vázquez DP, CaraDonna PJ, Knight TM, Benadi G, Dormann CF, Gauzens B, Motivans E, Resasco J, Blüthgen N, Burkle LA, Fang Q, Kaiser–Bunbury CN, Alarcón R, Bain JA, Chacoff NP, Huang SQ, LeBuhn G, MacLeod M, Petanidou T, Rasmussen C,  Simanonok MP, Thompson AH, Fründ J (2020) Temporal scale‐dependence of plant–pollinator networks. Oikos in press


[152]  Wehner K, Schäfer L, Blüthgen N, Mody K (2020) Seed type, habitat and time of day influence post-dispersal seed removal in temperate ecosystems. PeerJ 8: e8769

[151]  Hoenle PO, Lattke J, Donoso D, von Beeren C, Heethoff M, Schmelzle S, Argoti A, Camacho L, Ströbel B, Blüthgen N (2020) Odontomachus davidsoni sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), a new conspicuous trap-jaw ant from Ecuador. Zookeys 958: 75-105



[150]  Vogt J, Klaus VH, Both S, Fürstenau C, Gockel S, Gossner MM, Heinze J, Hemp A, Hölzel N, Jung K, Kleinebecker T, Lauterbach Lorenzen K, Ostrowski A, Otto N, Prati D, Renner S, Schumacher U, Seibold S, Simons N, Steitz I, Teuscher M, Thiele J, Weithmann S, Wells K, Wiesner K, Ayasse M, Blüthgen N, Fischer M, Weisser WW (2019) Eleven years’ data of grassland management in Germany. Biodiversity Data Journal 7: e36387

[149]  Ekroos J, Kleijn D, Batáry P, Albrecht M, Báldi A, Blüthgen N, Knop E, Kovács-Hostyánszki A, Smith HG (2019) High land-use intensity in grasslands constrains wild bee species richness in Europe. Biological Conservation 241: 108255

[148]  Seibold S, Gossner MM, Simons NK, Blüthgen N, Müller J, Ambarli D, Ammer C, Bauhus J, Fischer M, Habel JC, Linsenmair KE, Schall P, Schulze ED, Vogt J, Weisser WW (2019) Arthropod decline in grasslands and forests is associated with drivers at landscape level. Nature 574: 671–674

[147]  Hoenle PO, Blüthgen N, Brückner A, Kronauer DJ, Fiala B, Donoso DA, Smith MA, Ospina Jara B, von Beeren C (2019) Species-level predation network uncovers high prey specificity in a Neotropical army ant community. Molecular Ecology 28: 2423-2440

[146]  Camara T, Leal IR, Oliveira F, Blüthgen N, Arnan X (2019) Anthropogenic disturbance and rainfall variation threaten the stability of plant-ant interactions in the Brazilian Caatinga. Ecography 42: 1960-1972

[145]  Arnan X, Molowny-Horas R, Blüthgen N (2019) Food resource exploitation and functional resilience in ant communities found in common Mediterranean habitats. Science of the Total Environment 684: 126-135

[144]  Feit B, Blüthgen N, Traugott M, Jonsson M (2019) Resilience of ecosystem processes: a new approach shows that functional redundancy of biological control services is reduced by landscape simplification. Ecology Letters 22: 1568-1577

[143]  Neff F, Blüthgen N, Chisté M, Simons NK, Steckel J, Weisser WW; Westphal C, Pellissier L, Gossner MM (2019). Cross-scale effects of land use on the functional composition of herbivorous insect communities. Landscape Ecology 34: 2001-2015

[142]  Schmelzle S, Blüthgen N (2019) Under pressure: force resistance measurements in box mites (Actinotrichida, Oribatida). Frontiers in Zoology 16: 24

[141]  Wehner K, Renker C, Brückner A, Simons N, Weisser W, Blüthgen N (2019) Land-use in Europe affects land snail assemblages directly and indirectly by modulating abiotic and biotic drivers. Ecosphere 10: e02726

[140]  Busch V, Klaus VH, Schaefer D, Prati D, Boch S, Müller J, Socher SA, Chisté M, Mody K, Blüthgen N, Fischer M, Hölzel N, Kleinebecker T (2019) Will I stay or will I go? Plant species specific response and tolerance to high land-use intensity in temperate grassland ecosystems. Journal of Vegetation Science 30: 674-686


[139]  Happe AK, Alins G, Blüthgen N, Boreux V, Bosch J, García D, Hambäck PA, Klein AM, Martínez-Sastre R, Miñarro M, Müller AK, Porcel M, Rodrigo A, Roquer-Beni L, Samnegård U, Tasin M, Mody K (2019) Predatory arthropods in apple orchards across Europe: Responses to agricultural management, adjacent habitat, landscape composition and country. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 273: 141-150

[138]  Fornoff F, Klein AM, Blüthgen N, Staab M (2019) Tree diversity increases robustness of multi-trophic interactions. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 286: 2399



[137]  Rosumek FB, Blüthgen N, Brückner A, Menzel F, Gebauer G, Heethoff M (2018). Unveiling community patterns and trophic niches of tropical and temperate ants using an integrative framework of field data, stable isotopes and fatty acids. PeerJ 6: e5467

[136]  Felipe-Lucia MR, Soliveres S, Penone C, Manning P, van der Plas F, Boch S, Prati D, Ammer C, Schall P, Gossner MM, Bauhus J, Buscot F, Blaser S, Blüthgen N, de Frutos A, Ehbrecht M, Frank K, Goldmann K, Hänsel F, Jung K, Kahl T, Nauss T, Oelmann Y, Pena R, Polle A, Renner S, Schloter M, Schöning I, Schrumpf M, Schulze ED, Solly E, Sorkau E, Stempfhuber B, Tschapka M, Weisser WW, Wubet T, Fischer M, Allan E (2018) Multiple forest attributes underpin the supply of multiple ecosystem services. Nature Communications 9: 4839

[135]  Frank K, Brückner A, Blüthgen N, Schmitt T (2018) In search for cues: dung beetle attraction and the significance of volatile composition in dung. Chemoecology 28: 145-152

[134]  Mesquita-Neto J, Blüthgen N, Schlindwein C (2018) Flowers with poricidal anthers and their complex interaction networks - disentangling legitimate pollinators and illegitimate visitors. Functional Ecology 32: 2321-2332

[133]  van der Plas F, Allan E, Fischer M, Alt F, Arndt H, Binkenstein J, Blaser S, Blüthgen N, Boehm S, Hoelzel N, Klaus V, Kleinebecker T, Morris K, Oelmann Y, Prati D, Renner S, Rillig MC, Schaefer HM, Schloter M, Schmitt B, Schoening I, Schrumpf M, Solly E, Sorkau E, Steckel J, Steffan-Dewenter I, Stempfhuber B, Tschapka M, Weiner C, Weisser W, Werner M, Westphal C, Wilcke W, Manning P (2018) Towards the development of general rules describing landscape heterogeneity-multifunctionality relationships. Journal of Applied Ecology 56: 168-179

[132]  Costa F, Blüthgen N, Viana-Junior A, Guerra TJ, Di Spirito L, Neves FS (2018) Resilience to fire and climate seasonality drive the temporal dynamics of ant-plant interactions in a fire-prone ecosystem. Ecological Indicators 93: 247-255

[131] Frank K, Krell FT, Walter P, Slade EM, Raine EH, Chiew LY, Vairappan CS, Schmitt T, Blüthgen N (2018) Global dung webs: high trophic generalism of dung beetles along the latitudinal diversity gradient. Ecology Letters ​DOI: 10.1111/ele.13095

[130] Ströbel B, Schmelzle S, Blüthgen N, Heethoff M (2018) An automated device for the digitization and 3D modeling of insects, combining extended-depth-of-field and all-side multi-view imaging. ZooKeys 759: 1-27

[129] Câmara T, Leal I, Blüthgen N, Oliveira FM, de Queiroz R, Arnan X (2018) Effects of chronic anthropogenic disturbance and rainfall on the specialization of ant-plant mutualistic networks in the Caatinga, a Brazilian dry forest. Journal of Animal Ecology DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12820

[128] Chisté MN, Mody K, Kunz G, Gunczy J, Blüthgen N (2018) Intensive land use drives small-scale homogenization of plant- and leafhopper communities and promotes generalists. Oecologia 186: 529-540


[127] Rosumek FB, Brückner A, Blüthgen N, Menzel F, Heethoff M (2017) Patterns and dynamics of neutral lipid fatty acids in ants–implications for ecological studies. Frontiers in Zoology 14: 36

[126] Dormann CF, Blüthgen N (2017) Food webs versus interaction networks: principles, pitfalls and perspectives. In: Moore JC, de Ruiter PC, McCann KS, Wolters V (eds) Adaptive food webs: stability and transitions of real and model ecosystems, Cambridge University Press.

[125] Frank K, Brückner A, Hilpert A, Heethoff M, Blüthgen N (2017) Nutrient quality of vertebrate dung as a diet for dung beetles. Scientific Reports 7: 12141

[124] Mangels J, Fiedler K, Schneider FD, Blüthgen N (2017) Diversity and trait composition of moths respond to land-use intensification in grasslands: generalists replace specialists. Biodiversity and Conservation 26: 3385-3405

[123] Staab M, Fornoff F, Klein AM, Blüthgen N (2017) Ants at plant wounds – a little-known trophic interaction with evolutionary implications for ant-plant interactions. American Naturalist 190: 442-450

[122] Frank K, Hülsmann M, Assmann T, Schmitt T, Blüthgen N (2017) Land use affects dung beetle communities and their ecosystem services in forests and grasslands. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 243: 114-122

[121] Brückner A, Heethoff M, Blüthgen N (2017) The relationship between epicuticular long-chained hydrocarbons and surface area – volume ratios in insects (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera). PLoS One 12: e0175001


[120] Kaluza BF, Wallace H, Keller A, Heard TA, Jeffers B, Drescher N, Blüthgen N, Leonhardt SD (2017) Generalist social bees maximize diversity intake in plant species-rich and resource-abundant environments. Ecosphere 8: e01758

[119] Wurmitzer C, Blüthgen N, Krell FT, Maldonado B, Ocampo F, Müller JK, Schmitt T (2017) Attraction of dung beetles to herbivore dung and synthetic compounds in a comparative field study. Chemoecology 27: 75-84

[118] Kämper W, Blüthgen N, Eltz T (2017) Bumblebee footprints on bird’s-foot trefoil uncover increasing flower visitation with land-use intensity. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 240: 77-83

[117] Kaiser-Bunbury CN, Mougal J, Whittington AE, Valentin T, Gabriel R, Olesen JM, Blüthgen N (2017) Ecosystem restoration strengthens pollination networks. Nature 542: 223-227

[116] Blüthgen N, Kaiser-Bunbury CN, Junker RR (2017) Biological invasions and ant-flower networks on islands. In: Oliveira PS, Koptur S. Ant-Plant Interactions: Impacts of Humans on Terrestrial Ecosystems. Cambridge University Press, pp. 267-289

[115] Simons N, Lewinsohn T, Blüthgen N, Buscot F, Boch S, Daniel R, Gossner MM, Jung K, Kaiser K, Müller J, Prati D, Renner SC, Socher S, Sonnemann I, Weiner CN, Werner M, Wubet T, Wurst S, Weisser WW (2017) Contrasting effects of grassland management modes on species-abundance distributions of multiple groups. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 237: 143-153

[114] Staab M, Methorst J, Peters J, Blüthgen N, Klein AM (2017) Tree diversity and nectar composition affect arthropod visitors on extrafloral nectaries in a diversity experiment. Journal of Plant Ecology 10: 201-221

[113] Kühsel S, Brückner AK, Schmelzle S, Heethoff M, Blüthgen N (2017) Surface area – volume ratios in insects. Insect Science 24: 829-841



​[112] Schleuning M, Fründ J, Schweiger O, Welk E, Albrecht J, Albrecht M, Beil M, Benadi G, Blüthgen N, Bruelheide H, Böhning-Gaese K, Dehling M, Dormann CF, Exeler N, Farwig N, Harpke A, Hickler T, Kratochwil A, Kuhlmann M, Kuhn I, Michez D, Mudri-Stojnic S, Plein M, Rasmont P, Schwabe A, Settele J, Vujic A, Weiner C, Wiemers M, Hof C (2016) Ecological networks are more sensitive to plant than to animal extinction under climate change. Nature Communications 7: 13965

[111] Gossner MM, Lewinsohn T, Kahl T, Grassein F, Boch S, Prati D, Birkhofer K, Renner SC, Sikorski J, Wubet T, Arndt H, Baumgartner V, Blaser S, Blüthgen N, Börschig C, Buscot F, Diekötter T, Ré Jorge L, Jung K, Keyel AC, Klein AM, Klemmer S, Krauss J, Lange M, Müller J, Overmann J, Pašalić E, Penone C, Perović D, Purschke O, Schall P, Socher SA, Sonnemann I, Tschapka M, Tscharntke T, Türke M, Venter PC, Weiner CN, Werner M, Wolters V, Wurst S, Westphal C, Fischer M, Weisser WW, Allan E (2016) Land-use intensification causes multitrophic homogenisation of grassland communities. Nature 540: 266-269

[110] Kämper W, Weiner C, Kühsel S, Storm C, Eltz T, Blüthgen N (2016) Evaluating the effects of floral resource specialisation and of nitrogen regulation on the vulnerability of social bees in agricultural landscapes. Apidologie 48: 371-383

[109] Chisté MN, Mody K, Gossner MM, Simons NK, Köhler G, Weisser WW, Blüthgen N (2016) Losers, winners, and opportunists: how grassland land-use intensity affects orthopteran communities. Ecosphere 7: e01545

[108] Soliveres S, van der Plas F, Manning P, Prati D, Gossner MM, Renner SC, Alt F, Arndt H, Baumgartner V, Binkenstein J, Birkhofer K, Blaser S, Blüthgen N, Boch S, ... Weiner CN, Weisser WW, Werner M, Westphal C, Wilcke W, Wolters V, Wubet T, Wurst S, Fischer M, Allan E (2016) Biodiversity at multiple trophic levels is needed for ecosystem multifunctionality. Nature 536: 456-459

[107] Esser HJ, Herre EA, Blüthgen N, Loaiza JR, Bermúdez S, Jansen PA (2016) Host specificity in a diverse Neotropical tick community: an assessment using quantitative network analysis and host phylogeny. Parasites and Vectors 9: 372

[106] Ellwood MDF, Blüthgen N, Fayle TM, Foster WA, Menzel F (2016) How do pairwise interactions affect community structure of epiphyte-dwelling ants in a tropical rainforest? Acta Oecologia 75: 24-34

[105] Kämper W, Werner PK, Hilpert A, Westphal C, Blüthgen N, Eltz T, Leonhardt SD (2016) How landscape, pollen intake and pollen quality affect colony growth in Bombus terrestris? Landscape Ecology 31: 2245-2258

[104] Sendoya S, Blüthgen N, Tamashiro J, Fernandez F, Oliveira P (2016) Foliage-dwelling ants in a neotropical savanna: effects of plant and insect exudates on ant communities. Arthropod-Plant Interactions 10: 183-195


[103]  Wehner K, Norton RA, Blüthgen N, Heethoff M (2016) Specialization of oribatid mites to forest microhabitats – the enigmatic role of litter. Ecosphere 7: e01336


[102]  Soliveres S, Manning P, Prate D, Gossner MM, Alt F, Arndt H, Baumgartner V, Binkenstein J, Birkhofer K, Blaser S, Blüthgen N, Boch S, ... Weiner CN, Weisser WW, Werner M, Westphal C, Wilcke W, Wolters V, Wubet T, Wurst S, Fischer M, Allan E (2016) Locally rare species influence grassland ecosystem multifunctionality. Philosophical Transactions Biological Sciences 371: 20150269


[101]  Ivens ABF, von Beeren C, Blüthgen N, Kronauer DJC (2016) Studying the complex communities of ants and their symbionts using ecological network analysis. Annual Review of Entomology 61: 353-371


[100]  Blüthgen N, Simons NK, Jung K, Prati D, Renner SC, Boch S, Fischer M, Hölzel N, Klaus VH, Kleinebecker T, Tschapka M, Weisser WW, Gossner MM (2016) Land use imperils plant and animal community stability through changes in asynchrony rather than diversity. Nature Communications 7: 10697


[99]  Houadria M, Blüthgen N, Salas-Lopez A, Schmitt MI, Arndt J, Schneider E, Orivel J, Menzel F (2016) The relation between circadian asynchrony, functional redundancy and trophic performance in tropical ant communities. Ecology 97: 225–235




[98]  Arnan X, Blüthgen N, Molowny-Horas R, Retana J (2015) Thermal characterization of European ant communities along thermal gradients and its implications for community resilience to temperature variability. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 3: 138


[97]   Gámez-Virués S, Perović DJ, Gossner MM, Börschig C, Blüthgen N, de Jong H, Simons NK, Klein AM, Krauss J, Maier G, Scherber C, Steckel J, Rothenwöhrer C, Steffan-Dewenter I, Weiner CN, Weisser W, Werner M, Tscharntke T, Westphal C (2015) Landscape simplification filters species traits and drives biotic homogenization. Nature Communications 6: 8568


[96]   Kaiser-Bunbury C, Blüthgen N (2015) Integrating network ecology with applied conservation: a synthesis and guide to implementation. AoB Plants 7: plv076


[95]  Arnan X, Blüthgen N (2015) Using eco-physiological traits to predict climate and activity niches: lethal temperature and water loss in Mediterranean ants. Global Ecology and Biogeography 24: 1454–1464


[94]  Kühsel S, Blüthgen N (2015) High diversity stabilizes the thermal resilience of pollinator communities in intensively managed grasslands. Nature Communications 6: 7989


[93]  Allan E, Manning P, Alt F, Binkenstein J, Blaser S, Blüthgen N, Böhm S, Grassein F, Hölzel N, Klaus V, Kleinebecker T, Morris EK, Oelmann Y, Prati D, Renner S, Rillig M, Schaefer HM, Schloter M, Schmitt B, Schöning I, Schrumpf M, Solly E, Sorkau E, Steckel J, Steffan-Dewenter I, Stempfhuber B, Tschapka M, Weiner C, Weisser WW, Werner M, Westphal C, Wilcke W, Fischer M (2015) Land use intensification alters ecosystem multifunctionality via loss of biodiversity and changes to functional composition. Ecology Letters 18: 834–843


[92]  Kaiser-Bunbury C, Mougal J, Valentin T, Gabriel R, Blüthgen N (2015) Herbicide application as habitat restoration tool: impact on native plant communities. Applied Vegetation Science 18: 650–660


[91]  Manning P, Gossner MM, Bossdorf O, Allan E, Zhang YY, Prati D, Blüthgen N, Boch S, Böhm S, Börschig C, Hölzel N, Jung K, Klaus VH, Klein AM, Kleinbecker T, Krauss J, Lange M, Müller J, Pašalić E, Socher SA, Tschapka M, Türke M, Weiner C, Werner M, Gockel S, Hemp A, Renner SC, Wells K, Buscot F, Kalko EKV, Linsenmair KE, Weisser WW, Fischer M (2015) Grassland management intensification weakens the associations among the diversities of multiple plant and animal taxa. Ecology 96: 1492–1501


[90]  Junker RR, Blüthgen N, Keller A (2015) Functional and phylogenetic diversities of plant communities differently affect the structure of flower-visitor interactions and reveal convergences in floral traits. Evolutionary Ecology 29: 437–450


[89]  Mangels J, Blüthgen N, Frank K, Grassein F, Hilpert A, Mody K (2015) Tree species composition and harvest intensity affect herbivore density and leaf damage on beech, Fagus sylvatica, in different landscape contexts. PLoS One 10: e0126140


[88]  Leonhardt SD, Wallace H, Blüthgen N, Wenzel F (2015) Potential role of environmentally derived cuticular compounds in stingless bees. Chemoecology 25: 159–167


[87]  Maglianesi MA, Blüthgen N, Böhning–Gaese K, Schleuning M (2015) Functional structure and specialization in three tropical plant–hummingbird interaction networks across an elevational gradient in Costa Rica. Ecography 38: 1119–1128


[86]  Staab M, Blüthgen N, Klein AM (2015) Tree diversity alters the structure of a tri-trophic network in a biodiversity experiment. Oikos 124: 827-834


[85]  Houadria M, Salas-Lopez A, Orivel J, Blüthgen N, Menzel F (2015) Dietary and temporal niche differentiation in species-rich assemblages – can they explain local tropical ant coexistence? Biotropica 47: 208–217


[84]  Renoult JP, Blüthgen N, Binkenstein J, Weiner CN, Werner M, Schaefer HM (2015) The relative importance of color signaling for plant generalization in pollination networks. Oikos 124: 347–354




[83]  Maglianesi MA, Blüthgen N, Böhning–Gaese K, Schleuning M (2014) Morphological traits determine specialization and resource use in plant–hummingbird networks in the Neotropics. Ecology 95: 3325–3334


[82]  Allan E, Bossdorf O, Dormann CF, Prati D, Gossner M, Tscharntke T, Blüthgen N, Barto K, Bellach M, Birkhofer K, Boch S, Böhm S, Börschig C, Chatzinotas A, Christ S, Daniel R, Diekötter T, Fischer C, Friedl T, Glaser K, Hallmann C, Hodac L, Hölzel N, Jung K, Klein AM, Klaus VH, Kleinebecker T, Krauss J, Lange M, Morris EK, Müller J, Nacke H, Pašalić E, Rillig MC, Rothenwöhrer C, Schall P, Scherber C, Schulze W, Socher SA, Steckel J, Steffan-Dewenter I, Türke M, Weiner CN, Werner M, Westphal C, Wolters V, WubetT, Gockel S, Gorke M, Hemp A, Renner SC, Schöning I, Pfeiffer S, König-Ries B, Buscot F, Linsenmair KE, Schulze ED, Weisser WW, Fischer M (2014) Inter-annual variation in land-use intensity enhances grassland multidiversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 111: 308–313


[81]  Benadi G, Hovestadt T, Poethke HJ, Blüthgen N (2014) Specialization and phenological synchrony of plants and pollinators along an altitudinal gradient. Journal of Animal Ecology 83: 639–650


[80]  Weiner CN, Werner M, Linsenmair KE, Blüthgen N (2014) Land use impacts on mutualistic networks: disproportional declines in specialized pollinators via changes in flower composition. Ecology 95: 466–474




[79]  Bohan DA, Raybould A, Mulder C, Woodward G, Tamaddoni-Nezhad A, Blüthgen N, Pocock MJO, Muggleton S, Evans DM, Astegiano J, Massol F, Loeuille N, Petit S, Macfadyen S (2013). Networking agroecology: integrating the diversity of agroecosystem interactions. In: Woodward G, Bohan DA (eds.) Ecological Networks in an Agricultural World. Advances in Ecological Research 49: 1–67


[78]  Menzel F, Blüthgen N, Tolasch T, Conrad J, Beifuß U, Beuerle T, Schmitt T (2013) Crematoenones - a novel substance class exhibited by ants functions as appeasement signal. Frontiers in Zoology 10: 32


[77]  Albrecht J, Berens DG, Blüthgen N, Jaroszewicz B, Selva N, Farwig N (2013) Logging and forest edges reduce redundancy in plant–frugivore networks in an old-growth European forest. Journal of Ecology 101: 990–999


[76]  Chrobock T, Weiner CN, Werner M, Blüthgen N, Fischer M, van Kleunen M (2013) Effects of native pollinator specialization, self-compatibility and flowering duration of European plant species on their invasiveness elsewhere. Journal of Ecology 101: 916–923


[75]  Benadi G, Blüthgen N, Hovestadt T, Poethke HJ (2013) When can plant-pollinator interactions promote plant diversity? American Naturalist 182: 131–146


[74]  Benadi G, Blüthgen N, Hovestadt T, Poethke HJ (2013) Contrasting specialization–stability relationships in plant–animal mutualistic systems. Ecological Modelling 258: 65–73


[73]  Junker RR, Blüthgen N, Brehm T, Binkenstein J, Paulus J, Schaefer M, Stang M (2013) Specialisation on traits as basis for the niche-breadth of flower visitors and as structuring mechanism of ecological networks. Functional Ecology 27: 329–341




[72]  Schleuning M, Fründ J, Klein AM, Abrahamczyk S, Alarcón R, Albrecht M, Andersson GKS, Bazarian S, Böhning-Gaese K, Bommarco R, Dalsgaard B, Dehling DM, Gotlieb A, Hagen M, Hickler T, Holzschuh A, Kaiser-Bunbury CN, Kreft H, Morris RJ, Sandel B, Sutherland WJ, Svenning JC, Tscharntke T, Watts S, Weiner CN, Werner M, Williams NM, Winqvist C, Dormann CF, Blüthgen N (2012) Specialization of mutualistic interaction networks decreases towards tropical latitudes. Current Biology 22: 1925–1931


[71]  Polidori C, Santoro D, Blüthgen N (2012) Does prey mobility affect niche width and individual specialization in hunting wasps? A network-based analysis. Oikos 122: 385–394


[70]  Blüthgen N, Dormann CF, Prati D, Klaus VH, Kleinebecker T, Hölzel N, Alt F, Boch S, Gockel S, Hemp A, Müller J, Nieschulze J, Renner SC, Schöning I, Schumacher U, Socher SA, Wells K, Birkhofer K, Buscot F, Oelmann Y, Rothenwöhrer C, Scherber C, Tscharntke T, Weiner CN, Fischer M, Kalko EKV, Linsenmair KE, Schulze ED, Weisser WW (2012) A quantitative index of land-use intensity in grasslands: integrating mowing, grazing and fertilization. Basic and Applied Ecology 13: 207–220


[69]  Leonhardt SD, Blüthgen N (2012) The same, but different: pollen foraging in honeybee and bumblebee colonies. Apidologie 43: 449-464


[68]  Benadi G, Blüthgen N, Hovestadt T, Poethke HJ (2012) Population dynamics of interacting plant and pollinator communities: stability reconsidered. American Naturalist 179: 157–168


[67]  Menzel F, Staab M, Chung AYC, Gebauer G, Blüthgen, N (2012) Trophic ecology of parabiotic ants: Do the partners have similar food niches? Austral Ecology 37: 537–546




[66]  Klaus VH, Kleinebecker T, Hölzel N, Blüthgen N, Boch S, Müller J, Socher S, Prati D, Fischer M (2011) Nutrient concentrations and fibre contents of plant community biomass reflect species richness patterns along a broad range of land-use intensities in agricultural grasslands. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 13: 287–295


[65]  Leonhardt SD, Form S, Blüthgen N, Schmitt T, Feldhaar H (2011) Genetic relatedness and chemical profiles in an unusually peaceful eusocial bee. Journal of Chemical Ecology 37: 1117–1126


[64]  Leonhardt SD, Schmitt T, Blüthgen N (2011) Tree resin composition, collection behavior and selective filters shape chemical profiles of tropical bees (Apidae: Meliponini). PLoS One 6: e23445


[63]  Junker R, Loewel C, Gross R, Dötterl S, Keller A, Blüthgen N (2011) Composition of epiphytic bacterial communities differs on petals and leaves. Plant Biology 13: 918–924


[62]  Leonhardt SD, Blüthgen N & Schmitt T (2011) Chemical profiles of body surfaces and nests from six Bornean stingless bee species. Journal of Chemical Ecology 37: 98–104


[61]  Bleil R, Blüthgen N, Junker RR (2011) Ant-plant mutualism in Hawai’i? Invasive ants reduce flower parasitism but also exploit floral nectar of the endemic shrub Vaccinium reticulatum (Ericaceae). Pacific Science 65: 291–300


[60]  Junker RR, Bretscher S, Dötterl S, Blüthgen N (2011) Phytochemical cues affect hunting site choices of a nursery web spider (Pisaura mirabilis) but not of a crab spider (Misumena vatia). Journal of Arachnology 39: 113–117


[59]  Junker RR, Daehler CC, Dötterl S, Keller A, Blüthgen N (2011) Hawaiian ant–flower networks: nectar-thieving ants prefer undefended native over introduced plants with floral defenses. Ecological Monographs 81: 295–311


[58]  Blüthgen N, Klein AM (2011) Functional complementarity and specialisation: The role of biodiversity in plant-pollinator interactions. Basic and Applied Ecology 12: 282–291


[57]  Weiner CN, Werner M, Linsenmair KE, Blüthgen N (2011) Land use intensity in grasslands: changes in biodiversity, species composition and specialisation in flower-visitor networks. Basic and Applied Ecology 12: 292–299


[56]  Schleuning M, Blüthgen N, Flörchinger M, Braun J, Schaefer HM, Böhning-Gaese K (2011) Specialization and interaction strength in a tropical seed-dispersal network differ among forest strata. Ecology 92: 26–36


[55]  Drescher J, Feldhaar H, Blüthgen N (2011) Interspecific aggression, resource monopolization and ecological dominance of Anoplolepis gracilipes within an ant community in Malaysian Borneo. Biotropica 43: 93–99




[54]  Junker RR, Bleil R, Daehler CC, Blüthgen N (2010) Intrafloral resource partitioning between endemic and invasive flower visitors: consequences for pollinator effectiveness. Ecological Entomology 35: 760–767


[53]  Drescher J, Blüthgen N, Schmitt T, Bühler J, Feldhaar H (2010) Societies driftig apart: behavioural, genetic and chemical differentiation between supercolonies in the yellow crazy ant Anoplolepis gracilipes. PLoS One 5: e13581


[52]  Menzel F, Woywod M, Blüthgen N, Schmitt T (2010) Behavioural and chemical mechanisms behind a Mediterranean ant-ant association. Ecological Entomology 35: 711–720


[51]  Junker RR, Heidinger IMM, Blüthgen N (2010) Metrioptera bicolor (Ensifera, Tettigoniidae, Decticinae) prefers leaves over petals: are flowers chemically defended? Journal of Orthoptera Research 19: 69–74


[50]  Leonhardt SD, Zeilhofer S, Blüthgen N, Schmitt T (2010) Stingless bees use terpenes as olfactory cues to find resin sources. Chemical Senses 35: 603–611


[49]  Menzel F, Pokorny T, Blüthgen N, Schmitt T (2010) Trail-sharing among tropical ants: interspecific use of trail pheromones? Ecological Entomology 35: 495–503


[48]  Leonhardt SD, Jung L-M, Schmitt T, Blüthgen N (2010) Terpenoids tame aggressors: chemical appeasement and communal nesting in eusocial stingless bees. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 64: 1415–1423


[47]  Junker RR, Höcherl N & Blüthgen N (2010) Responses to olfactory signals reflect network structure of flower-visitor interactions. Journal of Animal Ecology 79: 818–823


[46]  Junker RR & Blüthgen N (2010) Floral scents repel facultative flower visitors, but attract obligate ones. Annals of Botany 105: 777–782


[45]  Fründ J, Linsenmair KE, Blüthgen N (2010) Pollinator diversity and specialization in relation to flower diversity. Oikos 119: 1581–1590


[44]  Blüthgen N (2010) Why network analysis is often disconnected from community ecology: A critique and an ecologist's guide. Basic and Applied Ecology 11: 185–195


[43]  Dworschak K, Blüthgen N (2010) Networks and dominance hierarchies: does interspecific aggression explain flower partitioning among stingless bees? Ecological Entomology 35: 216–225


[42]  Weiner CN, Hilpert A, Werner M, Linsenmair KE, Blüthgen N (2010) Pollen amino acids and flower specialisation in solitary bees. Apidologie 41: 476–487


[41]  Menzel F, Blüthgen N (2010) Parabiotic associations between tropical ants: equal partnership or parasitic exploitation? Journal of Animal Ecology 79: 71–81


[40]  Blüthgen N, Feldhaar H (2010) Food and shelter: how resources influence ant ecology. In: Lach L, Parr C, Abbott K (eds.) Ant ecology. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 115–136


2009 and before


[39]  Feldhaar H, Gebauer G, Blüthgen N (2009) Stable isotopes: past and future in exposing secrets of ant nutrition (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 13: 3–13


[38]  Leonhardt SD, Blüthgen N, Schmitt T (2009) Smelling like resin: terpenoids make up for species-specific cuticular profiles in Southeast-Asian stingless bees. Insectes Sociaux 56: 157–170


[37]  Leonhardt SD, Blüthgen N (2009) A sticky affair: resin collection by Bornean stingless bees. Biotropica 41: 730–736


[36]  Menzel F, Schmitt T, Blüthgen N (2009) Intraspecific nestmate recognition in two parabiotic ant species: acquired recognition cues and low inter-colony discrimination. Insectes Sociaux 56: 251–260


[35]  Vázquez DP, Blüthgen N, Cagnolo L, Chacoff N (2009) Uniting pattern and process in plant-animal mutualistic networks: a review. Annals of Botany 103: 1445–1457


[34]  Dormann CF, Fründ J, Blüthgen N, Gruber B (2009) Indices, graphs and null models: analysing bipartite ecological networks. The Open Ecology Journal 2: 7–24


[33]  Ings TC, Montoya JM, Bascompte J, Blüthgen N, Brown L, Dormann CF, Edwards F, Figueroa D, Jacob U, Jones JI, Laurisden RB, Ledger ME, Lewis HM, Olesen JM, Van Veen FJ, Warren PH, Woodward G (2009) Ecological networks - beyond food webs. Journal of Animal Ecology 78: 253–269


[32]  Menzel F, Blüthgen N, Schmitt T (2008) Tropical parabiotic ants: Highly unusual cuticular substances and low interspecific discrimination. Frontiers in Zoology 5:16


[31]  Blüthgen N, Fründ J, Vázquez DP, Menzel F (2008) What do interaction network metrics tell us about specialization and biological traits? Ecology 89: 3387–3399


[30]  Junker RR, Itioka T, Bragg PE, Blüthgen N (2008) Feeding preferences of phasmids (Insecta: Phasmida) in a Bornean dipterocarp forest. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 56: 235–242


[29]  Junker RR, Blüthgen N (2008) Signals that attract mutualists but repel enemies: floral scents as defense against ants. Evolutionary Ecology Research 10: 295–308


[28]  Lehmberg L, Dworschak K, Blüthgen N (2008) Defensive behavior and chemical deterrence against ants in the stingless bee genus Trigona (Apidae, Meliponini). Journal of Apicultural Research 47: 17–21


[27]  Menzel F, Linsenmair KE, Blüthgen N (2008) Selective interspecific tolerance in tropical Crematogaster – Camponotus associations. Animal Behaviour 75: 837–846


[26]  Blüthgen N, Metzner A (2007) Contrasting leaf age preferences of specialist and generalist phasmids. Oikos 116: 1853–1862


[25]  Jordan R, Blüthgen N (2007) No evidence for a dominance-discovery trade-off among Formica pratensis colonies (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 10: 7–10


[24]  Schmit-Neuerburg V, Blüthgen N (2007) Ant gardens protect epiphytes against drought in a Venezuelan lowland rain forest. Ecotropica 13: 93–100


[23] Mezger D, Blüthgen N (2007) Trophobioses on Borneo climbing bamboo – diversity and ecology of ant-hemipteran associations on Dinochloa trichogona (Poaceae). Asian Myrmecology 1: 59–68


[22]  Vázquez DP, Melián CJ, Williams NM, Blüthgen N, Krasnov BR, Poulin R (2007) Species abundance and asymmetric interaction strength in ecological networks. Oikos 116: 1120–1127


[21]  Blüthgen N, Menzel F, Hovestadt T, Fiala B, Blüthgen N (2007) Specialization, constraints, and conflicting interests in mutualistic networks. Current Biology 17: 341–346


[20]  Drescher J, Blüthgen N, Feldhaar H (2007) Population structure and intraspecific aggression in the invasive ant species Anoplolepis gracilipes in Malaysian Borneo. Molecular Ecology 16: 1453–1465


[19]  Junker R, Chung AYC, Blüthgen N (2007) Interaction between flowers, ants and pollinators: additional evidence for floral repellence against ants. Ecological Research 22: 665–670


[18]  Blüthgen N, Stork NE (2007). Ant mosaics in a tropical rainforest in Australia and elsewhere: a critical review. Austral Ecology 32: 93–104


[17]  Leonhardt SD, Dworschak K, Eltz T, Blüthgen N (2007) Foraging loads of stingless bees and utilisation of stored nectar for pollen harvesting. Apidologie 38: 125–135


[16]  Blüthgen N, Menzel F, Blüthgen N (2006) Measuring specialization in species interaction networks. BMC Ecology 6: 9


[15]  Feldhaar H, Drescher J, Blüthgen N (2006) Characterization of microsatellite markers for the invasive ant species Anoplolepis gracilipes. Molecular Ecology Notes 6: 912–914


[14]  Blüthgen N, Mezger D, Linsenmair KE (2006) Ant-hemipteran trophobioses in a Bornean rainforest – diversity, specificity and monopolisation. Insectes Sociaux 53: 194–203


[13]  Blüthgen N, Metzner A, Ruf D (2006) Food plant selection by stick insects (Phasmida) in a Bornean rain forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology 22: 35–40


[12]  Blüthgen N, Stork NE, Fiedler K (2004) Bottom-up control and co-occurrence in complex communities: honeydew and nectar determine a rainforest ant mosaic. Oikos 106: 344–358


[11]  Blüthgen N, Gottsberger G, Fiedler K (2004) Sugar and amino acid composition of ant-attended nectar and honeydew sources from an Australian rainforest. Austral Ecology 29, 418–429


[10]  Blüthgen N, Fiedler K (2004) Competition for composition: lessons from nectar-feeding ant communities. Ecology 85, 1479–1485


[09]  Blüthgen N, Fiedler K (2004) Preferences for sugars and amino acids and their conditionality in a diverse nectar-feeding ant community. Journal of Animal Ecology 73: 155–166


[08]  Carver M, Blüthgen N, Grimshaw J, Bellis G (2003) Aphis clerodendri Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), attendant ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and associates on Clerodendrum (Verbenaceae) in Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology 42: 109–113


[07]  Blüthgen N, Gebauer G, Fiedler K (2003) Disentangling a rainforest food web using stable isotopes: dietary diversity in a species-rich ant community. Oecologia 137: 426–435


[06]  Blüthgen N, Reifenrath K (2003) Extrafloral nectaries in an Australian rainforest – structure and distribution. Australian Journal of Botany 51: 515–527


[05]  Blüthgen N, Fiedler K (2002) Interactions between weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina), homopterans, trees and lianas in an Australian rainforest canopy. Journal of Animal Ecology 71: 793–801


[04]  Blüthgen N, Wesenberg J (2001) Ants induce domatia in a rain forest tree (Vochysia vismiaefolia). Biotropica 33: 637–642


[03]  Blüthgen N, Schmit-Neuerburg V, Engwald S, Barthlott W (2001) Ants as epiphyte gardeners – comparing the nutrient quality of ant and termite canopy substrates in a Venezuelan lowland rain forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology 17: 887–894


[02]  Blüthgen N, Verhaagh M, Goitía W, Jaffé K, Morawetz W, Barthlott W (2000) How plants shape the ant community in the Amazonian rainforest canopy: the key role of extrafloral nectaries and homopteran honeydew. Oecologia 125: 229–240


[01]  Blüthgen N, Verhaagh M, Goitía W, Blüthgen N (2000) Ant nests in tank bromeliads – an example of non-specific interaction. Insectes Sociaux 47: 313–316

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