Michael Heethoff

​2013-2040  Associate Professor TU Darmstadt
2012-2013  Associate Professor U Tübingen
2010-2012  Research Fellow (DFG) U Graz
2004-2010  Research Assistant U Tübingen
2000-2003  PhD thesis TU Darmstadt
1994-1999  Studied Biology at TU Darmstadt



Foto 11.09.21, 13 03 34 (1).jpg



heethoff (at) bio.tu-darmstadt.de

B1|01, Room 264 

Prof. Dr. Michael Heethoff

Animal Evolutionary Ecology

Ecological Networks

Schnittspahnstraße 3

D-64287 Darmstadt

Phone: +49 6151 1675417

Research interests    

Soil ecology - interactions among soil organisms
3D-digitization of insects

Research domains: 

Evolutionary, functional and chemical ecology 

Functional morphology and ecomorphology

Evolution of parthenogenesis

Research funds / projects as PI              

2010-2012  Chemical ecology of oribatid mites (DFG)

2013-2016  ASTOR (BMBF research unit, speaker)
2016-2020  NOVA (BMBF research unit, speaker)
2020-2023  Integrative Taxonomy (DFG)
2021-2025  Predator-Prey Networks (DFG Research Unit, subproject)
2021-2024  3D insect digitization (DFG LIS network, speaker)



Publications (if your looking for publianions - look my negative list)


(84) Meier, M., Aßauer, L., Heethoff, M., Michalik, P. (2022). DigiTiB - ein interaktives Lernwerkzeug zur Artbestimmung. Unterricht Biologie 46:24-30.


(83) Wehner, K., Simons, N.K., Blüthgen, N., Heethoff, M. (2021). Drought, windthrow and forest operations strongly affect oribatid mite communities in different microhabitats, Global Ecology and Conservation 30: e01757

(82) Wehner, K., Schuster, R., Simons, N.K., Norton, R.A.,  Blüthgen, N., Heethoff, M. (2021). How land-use intensity affects sexual and parthenogenetic oribatid mites in temperate forests and grasslands in Germany. Experimental and Applied Acarology 83: 343-373


(81) Lösel, P.D., van de Kamp, T., ...Heethoff, M.,... Heuveline, V. (2020). Introducing Biomedisa as an open-source platform for biomedical image segmentation. Nature Communications 11: 5577.

(80) Brückner, A., Kaltenpoth, M., Heethoff, M. (2020). De novo biosynthesis of simple aromatic compounds by an arthropod (Archegozetes longisetosus). Proceedings of the Royal Society B 287: 20201429.

(79) Merkel, C., Heethoff, M., Brückner, A. (2020). Temperature Affects Chemical Defense in a Mite-Beetle Predator-Prey System. J Chem Ecol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10886-020-01212-3

(78) Hoenle, P., Lattke, J.E., Donoso, D., von Beeren, C., Heethoff, M., Schmelzle, S., Argoti, A., Camacho, L., Ströbel, B., Blüthgen, N. (2020). Odontomachus davidsoni sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), a new conspicuous trap-jaw ant from Ecuador. Zookeys 948: 75-105

(77) Brückner, A., Heethoff, M. (2020) Fatty acid metabolism in an oribatid mite: de novo biosynthesis and the effect of starvation. Experimental and Applied Acarology 81: 483-494.


(76) Pollierer, M. M., Larsen, T. L., Potapov, A., Brückner, Heethoff, M., Dyckmans, J., Scheu, S. (2019) Compound-specific isotope analysis of amino acids as a new tool to uncover trophic chains in soil food webs. Ecological Monographs 89: e01384

(75) Thiel, T., Brechtel, A., Brückner, A., Heethoff, Mi., Drossel, B. (2019). The effect of reservoir-based chemical defense on predator-prey dynamics. Theoretical Ecology, 12: 365-378.


(74) Brückner, A., Schuster, R., Wehner, K., Heethoff, M. (2018) Nutritional quality modulates trait variability. Frontiers in Zoology 15:50.

(73) Brückner, A., Heethoff, M., Norton, R. A., Wehner, K. (2018). Body size structure of oribatid mite communities in different microhabitats. Int. J. Acarol., DOI: 10.1080/01647954.2018.1508248

(72) Heethoff, M., Brückner, A., Schmelzle, S., Schubert, M., Bräuer, M., Meusinger, R., Dötterl, S., Norton, R. A., Raspotnig, G. (2018). Life as a fortress - structure, function, and adaptive values of morphological and chemical defense in the oribatid mite Eupthiracarus reticulatus (Actinotrichida). BMC Zoology 3:7.

(71) Rosumek, F. B., Blüthgen, N., Brückner, A., Menzel, F., Gebauer, G., Heethoff, M. (2018). Unveiling community patterns and trophic niches of tropical and temerate ants using an itegrative framework of field data, stable isotopes and fatty acids. PeerJ 6:e5467.

(70) Heethoff, M. (2018). The future of Chemoecology. Chemoecology 28: 75.

(69) Wehner, K., Heethoff, M., Brückner, A. (2018). Seasonal fluctuation of oribatid mite communities in forest microhabitats. PeerJ 6:e4863.

(68) Ströbel, B., Schmelzle, S., Blüthgen, N., Heethoff, M. (2018). An automated device for the digitization and 3D modeling of insects, combining extended-depth-of-field and all-side multi-view imaging. ZooKeys 759: 1-27.

(67) Heethoff, M. (2018). Cryptic species - conceptual or terminological chaos? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 33: 310.

(66) Wehner, K., Heethoff, M., Brückner, A. (2018). Sex ratios of oribatid mites differ among microhabitats. Soil Organisms 90: 13-21.

(65) Brückner, A., Schuster, R., Wehner, K., Heethoff, M. (2018). Effects of nutritional quality on the reproductve biology of Archegozetes longisetosus (Actinotrichida, Oribatida, Trhypochthoniidae). Soil Organisms 90: 1-12.

(64) Brückner, A., Schuster, R. Smit, T., Heethoff, M. (2018). Imprinted or innate food preferences in the model mite Archegozetes longiosetosus (Actinotrichida, Oribatida, Trhypochthoniidae). Soil Organisms, 13-26.

(63) Brückner, A., Heethoff, M. (2018). Nutritional effects on chemical defense alter predator-prey dynamics. Chemoecology 28: 1-9.

(62) Bergmann, P., Laumann, M., Norton, R.A., Heethoff, M. (2018). Cytological evidence for automictic thelytoky in parthenogenetic oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida): Synaptonemal complexes confirm meiosis in Archegozetes longisetosus. Acarologia 58: 342-356.

(61) Brückner, A., Schuster, R., Smit, T., Pollierer, M.M., Schäffler, I., Heethoff, M. (2018). Track the snack - olfactory cues shape foraging behaviour of decomposing soil mites (Oribatida). Pedobiologia 66: 74-80.


(60) Kühsel, S., Brückner, A., Schmelzle, S., Heethoff, M., Blüthgen, N. (2017). Surface area – volume ratios in insects. Insect Science, 24, 829-841.

(59) Lösel, P., Heuveline, V., Jerome, N.T., Kopmann, A., van de Kamp, T., Schmelzle, S., Heethoff, M. (2017). Biomedisa: The Biomedical Image Segmentation App. 3rd International Conference on Tomography of Materials and Structures Lund, Sweden, ICTMS2017-106-3.

(58) Frank, K., Brückner, A., Hilpert, A., Heethoff, M., Blüthgen, N. (2017). Nutrient quality of vertebrate dung as a diet for dung beetles. Scientific Reports 7:12141.

(57) Schmelzle, S., Heethoff, M., ... van de Kamp, T. (2017). "The NOVA project: maximizing beam time efficiency through synergistic analyses of SRμCT data", Proc. SPIE 10391, Developments in X-Ray Tomography XI, 103910P-1.

(56) Brückner, A., Hilpert, A., Heethoff M. (2017). Biomarker function and nutritional stoichiometry of neutral lipid fatty acids and amino acids in oribatid mites. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 115: 35-43.

(55) Rosumek, F. B., Brückner, A., Blüthgen, N., Menzel, F., Heethoff, M. (2017). Patterns and dynamics of neutral lipid fatty acids in ants - implications for ecological studies. Frontiers in Zoology 14:36.

(54) Eisenhauer, N., ... , Heethoff, M., ... Powell, J. R. (2017). Priorities for research in soil ecology. Pedobiologia 63: 1-7.

(53) Brückner A., Heethoff M. (2017). The ontogeny of oil gland chemistry in the oribatid mite Archegozetes longisetosus Aoki (Oribatida, Trhypochthoniidae). International Journal of Acarology 43: 337-342.

(52) Brückner, A., Heethoff, M., Blüthgen, N. (2017). The relationship between epicuticular long-chained hydrocarbons and surface area – volume ratios in insects (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera). PLoS ONE 12: e0175001.

(51) Brückner, A., Raspotnig, G., Wehner, K., Meusinger, R., Norton, R.A., Heethoff, M. (2017). Storage and release of hydrogen cyanide in a chelicerate (Oribatula tibialis). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114(13): 3469-3472.

(50) Koerner, L., Garamszegi, L.Z., Heethoff, M., Betz, O. (2017). Divergent morphologies of adhesive predatory mouthparts of Stenus species (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) explain differences in adhesive performance and resulting prey-capture success. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 181: 500-518.


(49b) Brückner, A., Heethoff, M. (2016). Erratum: A chemo-ecologists' practical guide to compositional data analysis. Chemoecology 27: 47.

(49a) Brückner, A., Heethoff, M. (2016). A chemo-ecologists' practical guide to compositional data analysis. Chemoecology 27: 33-46.

(48) Heethoff, M., Norton, R. A., Raspotnig, G. (2016). Once again: oribatid mites and skin alkaloids in poison frogs. J. Chem. Ecol. 42: 841-844.

(47) Heethoff, M., Scheu, S. (2016). Reliability of isotopic fractionation (15N, 13C) for the delimitation of trophic levels of oribatid mites: Diet strongly affects 13C but not 15N. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 101: 124-129.

(46) Brückner, A., Wehner, K., Neis, M., Heethoff, M. (2016). Attack and defense in a gamasid-oribatid mite predator-prey experiment – sclerotization outperforms chemical repellency. Acarologia 216: 451-461.

(45) Brückner, A., Heethoff, M. (2016). Scent of a mite – Origin and chemical characterization of the lemonlike flavor of mite-ripened cheeses. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 69: 249-261.

(44) Wehner, K., Norton, R. A., Blüthgen, N., Heethoff, M. (2016). Specialization of oribatid mites to forest microhabitats – the enigmatic role of litter. – Ecosphere 7:e01336.

(43) Hartmann, K., Laumann, M., Bergmann, P., Heethoff, M., Schmelzle, S. (2016). Development of the synganglion and morphology of the adult nervous system in the mite Archegozetes longisetosus Aoki (Chelicerata, Actinotrichida, Oribatida). Journal of Morphology 277: 537-548.


(42) Schmelzle, S., Norton, R. A., Heethoff, M. (2015). Mechanics of the ptychoid defense mechanism in Ptyctima (Acari, Oribatida): One problem, two solutions. Zool. Anz. 254: 27-40.

(41) Heethoff, M., Rall, B. C. (2015). Reducible defence: chemical protection alters the dynamics of predator-prey interactions. Chemoecology 25: 53-61.


(40) Heethoff, M., Bergmann, P., Laumann, M., Norton, R. A. (2013). The 20th anniversary of a model mite: A review of current knowledge about Archegozetes longisetosus (Acari, Oribatida). Acarologia 53: 353-368.


(39) Koerner, L., Laumann, M., Betz, O., Heethoff, M. (2013). Loss of the sticky harpoon - COI sequences indicate paraphyly of Stenus with respect to Dianous (Staphylinidae, Steninae). Zool. Anz. 252: 337-347.



(38) Heethoff, M. (2012). Regeneration of complex defensive oil-gland secretions and its importance for chemical defense in an oribatid mite. J. Chem. Ecol. 38: 1116-1123.


(37) Schmelzle, S., Norton, R. A., Heethoff, M. (2012). A morphological comparison of two closely related ptychoid oribatid mite species: Phthiracarus longulus and P. globosus (Acari: Oribatida: Phthiracaroidea). Soil Organisms 84: 431-443.


(36) Bergmann, P., Heethoff, M. (2012). Development of the internal reproductive organs in early nymphal stages of Archegozetes longisetosus Aoki (Acari, Oribatida, Tthypochthoniidae) as obtained by synchrotron X-ray microtomography (SR-µCT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Soil Organisms 84: 459-470.


(35) Heethoff, M. Raspotnig, G. (2012). Investigating chemical communication in oribatid and astigmatid mites in bioassays - Pitfalls and suggestions. Soil Organisms 84: 409-421.


(34) Van der Meijden, A., Langer, F., Boistel, R., Vagovic, P., Heethoff, M. (2012). Functional morphology and bite performance of raptorial chelicerae of camel spiders (Solifugae). J. Exp. Biol. 15: 3411-3418.


(33) Bergmann, P., Heethoff, M. (2012). The oviduct is a brood chamber for facultative egg retention in the parthenogenetic oribatid mite Archegozetes longisetosus Aoki (Acari, Oribatida), Tissue & Cell 44: 342-350.


(32) Heethoff, M., Raspotnig, G. (2012). Triggering chemical defense in an oribatid mite using artificial stimuli. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 56: 287-295.


(31) Heethoff, M., Raspotnig, G. (2012). Expanding the ‘enemy-free space’ for oribatid mites: Evidence for chemical defense of juvenile Archegozetes longisetosus against the rove beetle Stenus juno. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 56: 93-97.



(30) Heethoff, M., Koerner, L., Norton, R. A., Raspotnig, G. (2011). Tasty but protected - first evidence of chemical defense in oribatid mites, J. Chem. Ecol. 37: 1037-1043.


(29) Heethoff, M., Raspotnig, G. (2011). Is 7-hydroxyphthalide a natural compound of oil gland secretions? – Evidence from Archegozetes longisetosus (Acari, Oribatida). Acarologia 51: 229-236.


(28) Fernández, R., Bergmann, P., Almodóvar, A., Cosín, D., Heethoff, M. (2011). Ultrastructural and molecular insights into three populations of Aporrectodea trapezoides (Dugés, 1828) (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) with different reproductive modes. Pedobiologia 54: 281-290.


(27) Alberti, G., Heethoff, M., Norton, R. A., Schmelzle, S., Seniczak, A., Seniczak, S. (2011). Fine structure of the gnathosoma of Archegozetes longisetosus Aoki (Acari: Oribatida, Trhypochthoniidae). J. Morphology 272: 1025-1079.


(26) Raspotnig, G., Norton, R. A., Heethoff, M. (2011). Oribatid mites and skin alkaloids in poison frogs. Biol. Lett. 7: 555-556.


(25) Heethoff, M., Laumann, M., Weigmann, G., Raspotnig, G. (2011). Integrative taxonomy: combining morphological, molecular and chemical data for species delineation in the parthenogenetic Trhypochthonius tectorum complex (Acari, Oribatida, Trhypochthoniidae), Front. Zool. 8:2.



(24) Laumann, M., Norton, R. A., Heethoff, M. (2010). Acarine cleavage patterns and early embryology: Inconsistencies, artificial results and misinterpretation. Soil Organisms 82: 217-235.


(23) Bergmann, P., Laumann, M., Heethoff, M. (2010). Ultrastructural aspects of vitellogenesis in Archegozetes longisetosus Aoki 1965 (Acari, Oribatida, Trhypochthoniidae). Soil Organisms 82: 193-208.


(22) Schmelzle, S., Helfen, L., Norton, R. A., Heethoff, M. (2010). The ptychoid defensive mechanism in Phthiracarus longulus (Acari, Oribatida, Phthiracaroidea): Exoskeletal amd muscular elements. Soil Organisms 82: 253-273.


(21) Laumann, M., Bergmann, P., Norton, R. A., Heethoff, M. (2010).  First cleavages, preblastula and blastula in the parthenogenetic mite Archegozetes longisetosus (Acari, Oribatida) indicate holoblastic rather than superficial cleavage. Arthropod Struct. Dev. 39: 276.286.



(20) Heethoff, M., Norton, R. A. (2009). A new use of synchrotron X-ray microtomography (SR-µCT): three-dimensional biomechanical modeling of chelicerate mouthparts and calculation of theoretical bite forces. Inv. Biol. 128: 332-339.


(19) Schmelzle, S., Helfen, L., Norton, R. A., Heethoff, M. (2009). The ptychoid defensive mechanism in Euphthiracaroidea (Acari: Oribatida): A comparison of muscular elements with functional considerations. Arthropod Struct. Dev. 38: 461-472.


(18) Heethoff, M., Helfen, L., Norton, R. A. (2009) Description of Neoliodes dominicus n.sp. (Acari, Oribatida) from Dominican amber, aided by synchrotron X-ray microtomography. J. Paleont. 83: 153-159.


(17) Heethoff, M., Norton, R. A. (2009). Role of musculature during defecation in a particle-feeding arachnid, Archegozetes longisetosus (Acari, Oribatida). J. Morphology 270: 1-13.



(16) Laumann, M., Bergmann, P., Heethoff, M. (2008). Some remarks on the cytogenetics of oribatid mites. Soil Organisms 80: 223-232.


(15) Bergmann, P., Laumann, M., Cloetens, P., Heethoff, M. (2008). Morphology of the internal reproductive organs of Archegozetes longisetosus Aoki (Acari, Oribatida). Soil Organisms 80: 171-195.


(14) Schmelzle, S., Norton, R. A., Helfen, L., Heethoff, M. (2008).The ptychoid defensive mechanism in Euphthiracaroidea (Acari: Oribatida): A comparison of exoskeletal elements. Soil Organisms 80: 233-247.


(13) Heethoff, M., Cloetens, P. (2008). A comparison of synchrotron X-ray phase contrast tomography and holotomography for non-invasive investigations of the internal anatomy of mites. Soil Organisms 80: 205-215.


(12) Heethoff, M., Helfen, L., Cloetens, P. (2008). Non-invasive 3D-visualization of the internal organization of microarthropods using synchrotron X-ray-tomography with sub-micron resolution. J. Vis. Exp. 15: e737



(11) Heethoff, M., Koerner, L. (2007). Small but powerful - The oribatid mite Archegozetes longisetosus Aoki (Acari, Oribatida) produces disproportionately high forces. J. Exp. Biol. 210: 3036-3042.

(10) Betz, O., Wegst, U., Weide, D., Heethoff, M.,  Helfen, L., Lee, W.-K., Cloetens, P. (2007). Imaging applications of synchrotron x-ray micro-tomography in biological morphology and biomaterial science. I. General aspects of the technique and its advantages in the analysis of arthropod structure. J. Microsc. 22: 51-71.

(9) Laumann, M., Norton, R. A.,Weigmann, G., Scheu, S., Maraun, M., Heethoff, M. (2007). Speciation in the parthenogenetic oribatid mite genus Tectocepheus (Acari, Oribatida) as indicated by molecular phylogeny, Pedobiologia 51: 111-122.

(8) Heethoff, M., Laumann, M., Bergmann, P. (2007) Adding to the reproductive biology of the parthenogenetic oribatid mite Archegozetes longisetosus (Acari, Oribatida, Trhypochthoniidae). Turk. J. Zool. 31: 151-159.


(7) Heethoff, M., Domes, K., Laumann, M., Maraun, M., Norton, R. A., Scheu, S. (2007). High genetic divergences indicate ancient separation of parthenogenetic lineages of the oribatid mite Platynothrus peltifer (Acari, Oribatida). J. Evol. Biol. 20: 392-402.



(6) Heethoff, M., Bergmann, P., Norton, R. A. (2006). Karyology and sex determination of oribatid mites. Acarologia 46: 127-131.


(5) Schaefer, I., Domes, K., Heethoff, M., Schneider, K., Schön, I., Norton, R. A., Scheu, S., Maraun, M.. (2006) No evidence for the 'Meselson effect' in parthenogenetic oribatid mites (Oribatida, Acari), J. Evol. Biol. 19: 184-193.



(4) Heethoff, M., Etzold, K., Scheu, S. (2004) Mitochondrial COII sequences indicate that the parthenogenetic earthworm Octolasion tyrtaeum (Savigny 1826) constitutes of two lineages differing in body size and genotype. Pedobiologia, 48: 9-13.


(3) Maraun, M., Heethoff, M., Schneider, K., Scheu, S., Weigmann, G., Cianciolo, J., Thomas, R. H., Norton, R. A. (2004). Molecular phylogeny of oribatid mites (Oribatida, Acari): evidence for multiple radiations of parthenogenetic lineages Exp. Appl. Acarol. 33: 183-201.




(2) Maraun, M., Heethoff, M., Scheu, S., Norton, R. A., Weigmann, G., Thomas, R. H. (2003) Radiation in sexual and parthenogenetic oribatid mites (Oribatida, Acari) as indicated by genetic divergence of closely related species. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 29: 265-277.



(1) Heethoff, M., Maraun, M., Scheu, S. (2000) Genetic variability in ribosomal ITS 1-sequences of the parthenogenetic oribatid mite Platynothrus peltifer (C.L. KOCH, 1839)(Acari:Oribatida). Ber. nat.-med. Ver. Innsbruck 87: 339-354.




Book chapters

(B6) Michalik, P., Heethoff, M. (2022). DigiTiB - Ein digitales Lernwerkzeug für die Vermittlung von Artenkenntnis. In: Husemann, M. et al. (2022) Facettenreiche Insekten: Vielfalt, Gefährdung, Schutz. Haupt Verlag, Bern, pp 219-222.

(B5) Ströbel, B., Heethoff, M. (2018). Mikrophotogrammetrie präparierter Insekten: Möglichkeiten und Grenzen. In: Luhmann, T. Photogrammetrie-Laserscanning Optische Messtechnik – Beiträge der Oldenburger 3D-Tage 2018

(B4) Mexner, W., Bonn, M., Kopmann, A., Mauch, V., Ressmann, D., van de Kamp, T., Chilingaryan, S., Jerome, N.T., Heuveline, V., Lösel, P., Schmelzle, S., Heethoff, M. – OpenGL API based analysis of large datasets in a cloud environment. In: Deka, G.C., Prashanta, K.D. Design and Use of Virtualization Technology in Cloud Computing. IGI Global, pp 161-181.

(B3) Ströbel, B., Justice, K., Heethoff, M. (2017) Mikrophotogrammetrie präparierter Insekten. In: Luhmann, T. Photogrammetrie-Laserscanning Optische Messtechnik – Beiträge der Oldenburger 3D-Tage 2017, Wichmann-Verlag Berlin, pp 344-356.

(B2) Heethoff, M., Norton, R. A., Scheu, S., Maraun, M. (2009). Parthenogenesis in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida): evolution without sex. In: Schoen, I., Martens, K., van Dijk, P. (eds.) Lost Sex - The Evolutionary Biology of Parthenogenesis. Springer Press, pp 241-257.


(B1) Heethoff, M. (2008). Molekulare Evolution - Was uns die DNS über unseren Ursprung erzählt. In: Betz, O., Köhler, H. (eds.) Die Evolution des Lebendigen - Grundlagen und Aktualität der Evolutionstheorie. Narr, Franke, Attempto Verlag Tübingen, pp 39-56.




Book reviews and non-peer-reviewed publications


Heethoff, M., (2012). Book review: Plant-Animal Communication, H.M. Schaefer & G.D. Ruxton, Oxford University Press, New Haven (2011). Basic Appl. Ecol. 13: 106.


Heethoff, M., (2010). Book review: Dazzled and Deceived: Mimicry and Camouflage, P. Forbes. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut (2009). Basic Appl. Ecol. 11: 471.


Heethoff, M. (2009). Mit Röntgenstrahlen in den Mikrokosmos – Synchrotron-Röntgen-Mikrotomographie für nicht-invasive Visualisierung mikroskopischer Strukturen. BIOforum 32: 14-16.


Heethoff, M. (2008) Sex? Nein, danke… labor&more 4/08: 10-12.






Heethoff, M. (2012) Evolution und Ökologie bodenbewohnender Hornmilben (Acari, Oribatida) - Parthenogenetische Reproduktion und Radiation, Entwicklungsbiologie, Funktionsmorphologie und chemische Ökologie. Habilitation Thesis, Universität Tübingen.


Heethoff, M. (2003) Genetic diversity and evolutionary age of parthenogenetic oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida). Doctoral Thesis, Technische Universität Darmstadt.


Heethoff, M. (1999) Genetische Variabilität bei der parthenogenetischen Hornmilbe Platynothrus peltifer. Diploma Thesis, Technische Universität Darmstadt.